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General Effects

General systemic symptoms vary between species and individuals, but usually include some or all of the following; headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizzyness, collapse, convulsions. Particularly in children, collapse and convulsions may be the first evidence of envenoming, at least for certain species (eg Australian Elapids). It is often assumed that hypotension will occur in response to envenoming, but hypertension is also common and both tachycardia and bradycardia are reported.